Cellular respiration The enzymatic release of energy from inorganic and organic compounds (especially carbohydrates and fats) which either requires oxygen (aerobic respiration) or does not (anaerobic respiration).
Gastrulation Phase in the early embryonic development of most animals.
Coagulation The sequential process in which the multiple coagulation factors of the blood interact, ultimately resulting in the formation of an insoluble fibrin clot; it may be divided into three stages: stage 1, the formation of intrinsic and extrinsic prothrom
Glycolysis The chemical reactions and pathways resulting in the breakdown of a carbohydrate into pyruvate, with the concomitant production of a small amount of ATP and the reduction of NAD(P) to NAD(P)H. Glycolysis begins with the metabolism of a carbohydrate t
Cognition The operation of the mind by which an organism becomes aware of objects of thought or perception; it includes the mental activities associated with thinking, learning, and memory.
Action potential A process in which membrane potential cycles through a depolarizing spike, triggered in response to depolarization above some threshold, followed by repolarization. This cycle is driven by the flow of ions through various voltage gated channels with
Citric acid cycle A nearly universal metabolic pathway in which the acetyl group of acetyl coenzyme A is effectively oxidized to two CO2 and four pairs of electrons are transferred to coenzymes. The acetyl group combines with oxaloacetate to form citrate, which underg
Cell cycle The progression of biochemical and morphological phases and events that occur in a cell during successive cell replication or nuclear replication events. Canonically, the cell cycle comprises the replication and segregation of genetic material follow
Circadian rhythm any biological process in an organism that recurs with a regularity of approximately 24 hours.
Fermentation The anaerobic enzymatic conversion of organic compounds, especially carbohydrates, coupling the oxidation and reduction of NAD/H and the generation of adenosine triphosphate (ATP).
Metabolism the set of life-sustaining chemical transformations within the cells of organisms
Electron transport chain A process in which a series of electron carriers operate together to transfer electrons from donors to any of several different terminal electron acceptors to generate a transmembrane electrochemical gradient.
Gluconeogenesis The formation of glucose from noncarbohydrate precursors, such as pyruvate, amino acids and glycerol.
DNA replication The cellular metabolic process in which a cell duplicates one or more molecules of DNA. DNA replication begins when specific sequences, known as origins of replication, are recognized and bound by initiation proteins, and ends when the original DNA m
Apoptosis A programmed cell death process which begins when a cell receives an internal (e.g. DNA damage) or external signal (e.g. an extracellular death ligand), and proceeds through a series of biochemical events (signaling pathway phase) which trigger an ex
Ejaculation The expulsion of seminal fluid, thick white fluid containing spermatozoa, from the male genital tract.